A Public Enactment of a Private Ritual

South Temple Square
Salt Lake City, Utah
October 6, 2019
10:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

“4.5 Hours” is a public expression of my private experience of domestic labor as something undervalued and invisible. In this silent enactment of a housecleaning ritual, I sweep up a pile of dirt on a rug, gather it in a dustpan, dump it in a bucket, and then throw it back onto the rug. Then I start all over, repeating the ritual for 4.5 hours.


PRESS: Salt Lake City Tribune and Salt Lake City Weekly

4.5 hours DRAFT9 OneSIde

This will be the third time I’ve performed “4.5 Hours” but the first time in the United States. The first two took place in Berlin, Germany.

The first time (April 1, 2017; 8:15 a.m.- 12:45 p.m.), I swept my rug in silence in the field of an abandoned airport-turned-public park, Tempelhof Airport. The second time (June 1, 2018; 1:00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.) I also swept in silence, but in a more public forum, in a front of the Humboldt University library.


I am a Feminist – Reflections on a Performance” by Michelle Standley (August 2018)

The Broom or Wages for Housework” by Michelle Standley, An Autonomous Woman [blog] (2011)

Time Spent in Paid and Unpaid Work, By Sex
Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (2019)

Why Are Poor Women Poor?” by Serene J. Khader, New York Times (September 11, 2019)

Recognize, Reduce, Redistribute Unpaid Care Work: How to Close the Gender Gap” by Diane Elson, New Labor Forum: A Journal of Ideas, Analysis and Debate (March 2017)

How Society Pays When Women’s Work is Unpaid” by Claire Caine Miller, New York Times (February 22, 2016)

Women Still Do More Chores Than Men, Study Finds” by Chloe Tejada, Huffington Post (September 27, 2017)

‘Invisible Labor’ Taking a Toll on Mother’s Well-Being: What You Need to Know” by Saumya Day, Good Morning America (January 22, 2019)

In the Home a Woman’s Work is Never Done, Never Honored and Never Paid For” by Allison Keyes, Smithsonian Magazine (March 18, 2019)

Unpaid Work Calculator
This Calculator Puts a Dollar Value on the Invisible, Unpaid Work Done By Women” by Annalisa Merelli and Youyou Zhou, Quartz at Work (February 28, 2018)

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